Simple CodeIgniter Security Best Practices to Secure Your Website
With the increasing demand for web applications and software
development, CodeIgniter, one of PHP's widely used frameworks gained
popularity. In this article, you will learn everything about CodeIgniter
and the practices and tips that help you secure your website when using
With the increased use of mobile phones and the digitalization of business across the
world, the demand for websites and web applications has increased. PHP is the most
preferred programming language to develop applications and software, that offers
While the availability of multiple frameworks has made software development or web
application seamless and easy, CodeIgniter is the most preferred one due to its
various in-built features and functionalities.
Let us see now, what is CodeIgniter and how can you secure your website using the
best security practices built-in by CodeIgniter.
Understanding CodeIgniter Framework
CodeIgniter is one of the widely used open-source PHP web application frameworks.
This framework allows developers to build dynamic web applications easily.
CodeIgniter follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, that
separates the application's logic and presentation layer, allowing it to be more
procedural and non-hassle.
Why CodeIgniter for developing web applications?
CodeIgniter is the most preferred framework by developers due to its various in-built
tools and features that aid developers in building robust and dynamic applications.
Here are a few reasons why CodeIgniter is the most favored PHP framework:
It is easy to learn and easy-to-use framework that has clear documentation
that makes it accessible to developers of all skill levels.
It is a lightweight framework where it utilizes minimal resources from the
server and performs quickly. Hence, proven best for a small application with
limited server capacities.
CodeIgniter offers flexibility while programming where you can adapt various
coding styles and preferences based on your business needs.
CodeIgniter has gained popularity due to its built-in security features.
Offers maximum approaches for safeguarding the applications against common
the rich user interface of applications.
CodeIgniter has a constant development cycle and has continuously been
updated and improved regularly.
CodeIgniter best security practices for websites
web applications or websites built with CodeIgniter involves implementing
the best methods to protect against common security issues. Here are some essential
security best practices for CodeIgniter web applications:
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a type of security vulnerability where attackers inject
malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users. CodeIgniter has its built-in
feature, XSS filtering security. Any data running will be filtered using the code
SQL Injection Prevention
SQL Injection is a type of security vulnerability where attackers can manipulate SQL
queries to perform unauthorized database operations. To prevent SQL injection in
your CodeIgniter web application, you can follow these methods :
Escaping User Input
Active Record and Query Builder
In query binding, instead of using user input directly into the query, use query
binding placeholders like ‘?’ or named placeholders like ‘: name’ and then pass the
user input as an array or an object.
Example with named placeholders:
$sql = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = :username AND password =
$this->db->query($sql, array('username' => $username, 'password' =>
Escaping User Input
To escape the user input in raw SQL queries you can use the escape() method from the
Database Utility Class-
$username = $this->db->escape($username); $password =
$this->db->escape($password); $sql = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE username
$username AND password = $password"; $this->db->query($sql);
Active Record and Query Builder:
Use this active record and query builder feature to construct database queries. These
classes automatically escape user input, reducing the risk of SQL injection.
As the errors displayed in the programming environment contain information about the
code, it is suggested not to display it to a user for security reasons. it is always
better if it is enabled in the development environment for debugging process. To
prevent this from happening, CodeIgniter has 3 error-handling features at every
PHP Error Reporting Level
error_reporting() function is used to hide all the errors from
index.php, just by passing zero as an argument.
Database Error level
To stop any error displaying from the database level is to turn this off in
application/config/database.php. Enable the db_debug option in the
$db array to FALSE as shown below.
$db['default']['db_debug'] = FALSE;
With CodeIgniter, you can implement proper error handling and logging mechanisms to
identify and mitigate SQL injection attempts.
Enable the log_threshold value in the $config array to 1 in the
application/cofig/config.php file as shown below.
$config['log_threshold'] = 1;
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is a type of attack where an attacker deceives a
user's browser into making authenticated requests to a web application. To prevent
CSRF attacks in your CodeIgniter web application these ways;
CodeIgniter provides built-in CSRF protection that you can enable in the
config.php file. Specify the csrf_protection option to TRUE.
With CSRF protection enabled, CodeIgniter automatically generates CSRF
tokens for each form submission. You can include these codes in your HTML
CSRF attacks often exploit GET requests as they can be triggered by image
tags or other external sources. Therefore, use the POST method for sensitive
actions in your application.
Make sure to log out after using every session. This protects against CSRF
attacks that rely on an active user session.
Passwords act as a key to log in to every application. What if your passwords are
fallen into the wrong hands? Your application can be used in an immoral way.
Therefore handling your passwords becomes much more important to keep your ethical
practices in a good way.
Make sure to store your passwords in complex format and not in plain text.
Always make use of hash in your passwords.
Use strong hashing algorithms like BCrypt, which is used in PHP’s Password
Do not share your passwords or display passwords in plain-text format.
Provide lengthy passwords combined with numbers and special characters.
Best practices and tips of CodeIgniter for web development
CodeIgniter is a flexible and lightweight PHP framework that offers several best
practices for web development to ensure security and maintainability. By following
the below-mentioned procedures CodeIgniter can be best suited for web development
opined website development company -
Use its basic architecture:
Adhere to the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern to keep your code
organized and maintainable.
Make use of CodeIgniter libraries:
CodeIgniter provides a range of built-in libraries and helpers that can simplify
tasks such as form validation, database handling, session management, and more. This
inbuilt feature makes web developers use CodeIgniter for its functionalities.
As discussed in the above section, CodeIgniter provides a wide range of security
features for securing your website. Just enabling built-in security features like
CSRF protection, XSS filtering, and form validation to safeguard your application
against common security threats.
Organization of files & documentation:
You can keep your CodeIgniter application files logically for easy access. Keep
controllers, models, and views in separate directories for easier management and
better code readability.
A PHP framework that has various built-in features and functionalities that can be
used while developing an application or website. With the features as mentioned
above, you will know how Codeigniter can be utilized for the safe and secure
development of websites. For better safety purposes always make sure to use the
latest updates and create custom web applications effortlessly.
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